Research Reports

Global Atlas of Excreta, Wastewater Sludge, and Management: Moving Forward the Sustainable and Welcome uses of a Global Resource

www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Global Atlas of Excreta.pdf

 

Biosolids - A Fuel or a Waste

The link below accesses a paper published in the journal of Envirnomental Science and Technolgy in 2006.  It discusses the findings of five technologies for the co-combustion of biosolids in the United Kingdom.  The article reports that "All scenarios provided a net energy gain (0.58 - 5.0 kWhr/kg dry solids), having accounted for the energy required for transportation and sludge drying."

www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Cartmell_BiosolidsFuelorWaste.pdf

Triclocarban, Triclosan, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and 4-Nonylphenol in Biosolids and in Soil Receiving 33-Year Biosolids Application

The link below accesses a paper published in the journal of Envirnomental Toxicology and Chemistry in 2010.  It explains the findings of study conducted on biosolids from 16 wastewater treatment plants on soils receiving applications of biosolids for 33 years.

www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Biosolids J of Env Tox and Chem 2010.pdf

Assessing the Fate and Significance of Microconstituents and Pathogens in Sewage Sludge

Posted on the N-Viro website July 26, 2010

www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Assessing-the-Fate-Report-2010.pdf
 

Results of Testing Conducted in Canada on 119 Emerging Substances of Concern (ESoC's) Present in Plants Grown with N-Viro Soil Amendment

N-Viro is committed to marketing a safe and beneficial soil amendment and regularly embarks on additional non-prescribed testing to address emerging concerns related to the land application of Non-Agricultural Source Material (NASM) to agricultural lands.  At present, we are voluntarily participating in a number of research programs on biosolids including:

-          Vineland Research Station, University of Guelph
-          CCME Biosolids Contaminants Testing Program
-          Nova Scotia Agricultural College Biosolids Contaminants Testing Program
-          Ag Canada – London Ontario Biosolids Contaminants Testing Program 

Much discussion surrounds Emerging Substances of Concern (“ESoC”) that may be present in biosolids and the effects of environmental exposure to these ESoC’s when biosolids are applied to agriculture land. 

Dr. K. Helen Fisher is currently investigating the impact of various NASM materials on grape vine growth and fruit bearing capacity. This study has been conducted for the past three (3) years in Vineland, Ontario. In September, 2009, Dr. Fisher agreed to provide N-Viro with composite samples of grapes grown from vines that had been fertilized with NVSA. A composite control sample was also provided.

N-Viro proceeded to send these grapes to Axys Analytical Laboratory located in British Columbia; the only laboratory in Canada that is able to do a full analysis of 119 analytes.
 
It is to be noted that the rate NVSA was applied to the vines was three (3) to seven (7) times the rate recommended to our agricultural customers.  Even at these excessive application rates, of the 119 ESoC’s that have been identified by the CCME and that were tested, only six (6) were found. Three (3) of the six (6) also appeared in the composite control samples. Axys Analytical is capable of testing materials in ppb (parts per billion) and the highest compound found was 22 ppb and the lowest was 0.3 ppb. The charts below illustrate the test results.
 
We will continue our efforts to ensure that NVSA is a safe soil amendment. 

 


 

 

Biosolids Emissions Assessment Model (BEAM)

The Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) established a Biosolids Task Group (BTG) which is preparing information that can be used as a guide for biosolids management practices.  The BTG retained SYLVIS to prepare the Biosolids Emissions Assessment Model (BEAM), the BEAM user guide and the BEAM final report.

One of the case studies presented in the BEAM final report is based on a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Nova Scotia (Mill Cove WWTP) that delivers its biosolids to the Halifax Biosolids Processing facility.  The biosolids processing facility employs the N-Viro Process™ for effective stabilization of biosolids and production of N-Viro Soil Amendment.  Of all the case studies presented in the report, the Mill Cove WWTP ranked third-best with an overall carbon credit of (-0.15) MgCO2eq/Mg dry solids. 

The link below will allow the reader to review the BEAM, the BEAM user guide and the BEAM Final Report.

http://www.ccme.ca/ourwork/waste.html?category_id=137

This following link is the BEAM Final Report titled "The Biosolids Emissions Assessment Model (BEAM): A Method for Determining Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Biosolids Management Practices."

http://www.ccme.ca/assets/pdf/beam_final_report_1432.pdf

 

Examples of Scientific Studies Relating to the Use of Biosolids

Surveys, Literature Review and Analytical Results for Biosolids

General Information

1.  6th Canadian Biosolids and Residuals Conference for Government, research scientists and industry, Quebec City, September 26-27, 2011
  1. A&L Laboratories, Ontario http://www.alcanada.com/home.php
  2. Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment (CCME), http://www.ccme.ca/ourwork/waste.html?category_id=137
  1. Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/fereng/tmemo/t-4-93e.shtml
  2. Nova Scotia Department of Environment “Guidelines for Land Application and Storage of Municipal Biosolids in Nova Scotia”, revised March, 2010 http://www.gov.ns.ca/nse/water/docs/BiosolidGuidelines.pdf
  3. Nova Scotia Land Review Committee, 2010, Preservation of Agricultural Land in Nova Scotia. http://www.gov.ns.ca/agri/elibrary/nsalrc/
  4. N-Viro Soil® Amendment analysis http://www.n-viro.ca/nviro/results-nova-scotia
  5. Standards Council of Canada (SCC) http://www.scc.ca/en/programs-services/laboratories
  6. University of Arizona – research on the benefits and potential health and environmental impact of biosolids http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/consumer/az1426.pdf
 
General Research
  1. Canadian Journal of Analytical Science and Spectroscopy. 2004, Unregulated Metals in Municipal Biosolids: Determinations of Sn and Tl. Hargreaves, J., Smith, P., Hale, B., 49(2), 1-7.
  2. Global Atlas of Excreta, Wastewater Sludge, and Management: Moving Forward the Sustainable and Welcome uses of a Global Resource, 2008; UN Human Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT). www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Global Atlas of Excreta.pdf
  3. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2006.  Biosolids—A Fuel or a Waste? An Integrated Appraisal of Five Co-combustion Scenarios with Policy Analysis, Cartmell et al. www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Cartmell_BiosolidsFuelorWaste.pdf
  4. Journal of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2010.  Triclocarban, Triclosan, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, and 4-Nonylphenol in Biosolids and in Soil Receiving 33-Year Biosolids Application; Xia et al. http://www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Biosolids%20J%20of%20Env%20Tox%20and%20Chem%202010.pdf
5.     National Research Council (US), Biosolids Applied to Land:Advancing Standards and Practices, http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10426
  1. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, 2004, Biosolids Land Application Project (Golden Horseshoe Soil and Crop Improvement Association).  http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/field/news/croptalk/2004/ct_0304a5.htm
  2. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, 2009, Field Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Sewage Biosolids Treated Ontario Agricultural Soils: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/nm/nasm/field/s98toc.htm
8.     Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Sewage Biosolids: A Valuable Nutrient Source, http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/nm/nasm/sewbiobroch.htm
  1. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Biosolids: What biosolids are; How biosolids are used; How Ontario ensures biosolids are safe to use,   http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/environment/en/subject/biosolids/index.htm
  2. Quebec Ministry of the Environment, Land application of biosolids in Saguenay: Impacts on soil quality 16 years later; presented at the 5th Canadian Residuals & Biosolids Conference, Water Environment Association,Perron and Hebert, September, 2009, http://www.weao.org/committees/biosolids/5randb/papers/Program_at_a_Glance.htm
  3. Water Environment Association of Ontario, 2010. Assessing the Fate and Significance of Microconstituents and Pathogens in Sewage Sludge; www.n-viro.ca/bank/pageimages/Assessing-the-Fate-Report-2010.pdf
Research on land application of biosolids
  1. Agricultural Water Management, 2006, Prediction of liquid municipal biosolids and precipitation induced tile flow in a Southern Ontario agricultural field using MACRO. Akhand, D.R., Lapen, D.R., Edwards, M., Topp, E., Sabourin, L., Ball-Coelho, B., Duenk, P., Payne, M. 83:37-50.
  2. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), 2008, Using MACRO to simulate liquid sewage biosolids transport to tile drains for several land application methods. Akhand, N, Lapen, D.R., Topp, E., Edwards, M., Sabourin, L., Ball-Coelho, B., Duenk P., Payne, M.; Trans. 51:1235-1245.
  3. ASABE, 2006, Persistence associated with liquid swine manure and liquid municipal biosolids in repacked sand columns with artificial macropores. Rahman, S., Topp, E., Edwards, M., and Lapen, D.R. 2006. Annual International Meeting, Paper number: 0621
  4. Biosystems Eng., 2007, Potential of brilliant blue dye to inform timing of liquid biosolid application. Turpin, K.M., D.R. Lapen, M.J.L. Robin, E. Topp, M. Edwards, W.E. Curnoe, B. Ball-Coelho, N.B. McLaughlin and M. Payne; 98:235-247.
  5. Commonwealth of Virginia, December 22, 2008. HJR 694 Biosolids Expert Panel Final Report http://www.virginiabiosolids.com/pdf/2008_Biosolids_Expert_Panel_Final_Report.pdf
  6. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2007, Epidemiological Surveillance and Investigation of Illness Reported by Neighbours of Biosolids Land Application Sites, Phase I, (WERF 06-HHE-5PP). Aitken, M., Crump, C., Heaney, C., Lowman, A., MacDonald, P., and Wing, S. 
  7. Water Environment Federation Residuals and Biosolids conference, Portland, Oregon. May 2009. Pathogen Characterization of Fresh and Stored Biosolids and Implications of a Screening Level Microbial Risk Assessment. Flemming, C., Soller, J., Simhon, A., Seto E. 2009. 
Research on pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in biosolids
  1. Chemosphere, 2007, Sample Storage and Extraction Efficiencies in Determination of Polycyclic and Nitro Musks in Sewage Sludge; SA Smyth, L Lishman, M Alaee, S Kleywegt, L Svoboda, J-J Yang, H-B Lee and P Seto;, V. 67 pp 267-275.
  2. International Water Association (IWA) Specialist Conference on Moving Forward Biosolids Sustainability, June 2007, Moncton, NB. Fate of Polycyclic and Nitro Musks during Aerobic and Anaerobic Sludge Digestion; SA Smyth, L Lishman, EA McBean, S Kleywegt, J-J Yang, ML Svoboda, H-B Lee and P Seto;
  3. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, 2007, Seasonal occurrence and removal of polycyclic and nitro musks from wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada. Smyth, S.A., Lishman, L., McBean, E.A., Kleywegt, S., Yang, J.J., Svoboda, M.L., Lee, H-B., and Seto; P. 7, 299-317.
  4. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2008, Effect of Liquid Municipal Biosolids Application Method on Tile and Ground Water Quality, Lapen, D. R., Topp, E., Edwards M., Sabourin L., Curnoe W., Gottschall N., Bolton, P., Rahman, S., Ball-Coelho, B., Payne. M., Kleywegt, S., McLaughlin N. 37, 925-936.
  5. Science of the Total Environment, 2006, Occurrence and Reductions of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products and Estrogen by Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Ontario, Canada;  L. Lishman, SA Smyth, K. Sarafin, S Kleywegt, J. Toito, T Peart, H-B Lee, M Servos, M. Beland and P Seto;
  6. Science of the Total Environment, 2008, Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in tile drainage following land application of municipal biosolids, Lapen, D.R., Topp, E., Metcalfe, C.D., Li, H.X., Edwards, M., Gottschall, N., Bolton, P., Curnoe, W.E., Payne, M., Beck, A., 2008., 399, 50-65.
  7. Science of the Total Environment, 2008. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of biosolids to an agricultural field. Topp E., Moteiro S.C., Beck, A., Coelho B.B., Boxall A., Duenk P.W., Kleywegt S., Lapen D.R., Payne P., Sabourin L., Li H., Metcalfe C. D.
  8. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 2007, Polycyclic and nitro musks in Canadian municipal wastewater: occurrence and removal in wastewater treatment. Smyth, S.A., Lishman, L., McBean, E.A., Kleywegt, S., Yang, J.J., Svoboda, M.L., Ormonde, S., Pileggi, V., Lee, H-B., and Seto; P. 24 (3), 138-152.
Research on pathogens and veterinary medicines in biosolids
1.     Bioresource Technology Journal, 1999, Impact of animal manures and their heavy metal content on agricultural land, Nicolson et al.
2.     Environmental Health Perspectives, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,, 1997, The Beauty of Biosolids, Vol 105 (1) http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-1focus/focusbeauty.html
3.     Environmental Science and Technology, 2003, Are Veterinary Medicines Causing Environmental Risks, Cranfield Center for Ecochemistry, US Geological Survey, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the German Henkel KGAA, Vol. 37 (15), http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es032519b
4.     Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 2006, Research on the uptake of veterinary medicines into plants, Boxall, et al, Vol. 54 (6).
5.     Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2007, Impact of animal manures and their heavy metal content on agricultural land, Toor et al, http://japr.fass.org/cgi/content/full/16/3/351
6.     Manure Management
a.     Nova Scotia Manure Management Guidelines, 2006 www.gov.ns.ca/agri/rs/envman/manureguide_2006lowres.pdf
b.    New Canadian Organic Regime, 2009 http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/orgbio/stainte.shtml
c.     Journal of Food Science http://www.ift.org/Knowledge-Center/Read-IFT-Publications/Science-Reports/Expert-Reports/Emerging-Microbiological-Food-Safety-Issues/FAQ-Microbial-Ecology.aspx
d.    Agricultural Scientific Journal http://www.agricultura-online.com/portal/issues/issue-7/93-microbial-food-safety-standards-in-organic-farming-a-review
7.     University of Guelph, Food Safety Network, Research on the threat to human health resulting from the use of antibiotics in animal production
8.     University of Minnesota, 2007, Best Management Practices for Pathogen Control in Manure Management Systems, http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/livestocksystems/DI8544.html
9.     University of North Carolina, Michigan State University and Texas A&M University, Pathogens in animal wastes and the impacts of waste management practices on their survival, transport and fate,  Sobsey et al, http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt/natlcenter/whitepapersummaries/pathogens.pdf
10. Veterinary pharmaceuticals detected in soils, surface water and groundwater
a.     http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/A3610.pdf
b.    http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/af_bmp_wastemgt.pdf
c.     http://www.gov.im/lib/docs/water/cofgagripractice.pdf
11. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2010, Dairy Cattle as a Source of Food or Waterborne Illness,http://www.extension.org/pages/Dairy_Cattle_as_a_Source_of_Food_or_Waterborne_Illness
Research on the use of biosolids for land reclamation and forestry projects
1.     Dr. Sally Brown, Associate Professor, School of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle http://faculty.washington.edu/slb/; 2011 Roscoe Ellis Guest Lecturer at Kansas State University, Department of Agronmy; Research specialty – soil remediation by using residuals. Interview on K-State Radio Network: Agriculture Today: http://blog.seattlepi.com/soiltosalad/2011/03/29/biosolids-on-the-radio/ March 2011.
2.     Metro Vancouver, biosolids research for land reclamation and forestry projects: http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/wastewater/biosolids/Pages/projects.aspx
Canadian municipal biosolid programs
1.     Calgary:  http://content.calgary.ca/CCA/City+Hall/Business+Units/Water+Services/Water+and+Wastewater+Systems/Wastewater+System/Calgro+Biosolids/Calgro.htm
2.     Greater Moncton Sewage Commission: http://www.gmsc.nb.ca/english/home/index.cfm
3.     Kingstonhttp://www.cityofkingston.ca/residents/environment/biosolids/faq.asp
4.     Leamington (1996), Sarnia (2001) and Niagara (2007).
5.     Ottawahttps://ottawa.ca/residents/waterwaste/biosolids/index_en.html
6.     Quebec http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/matieres/articles/index-en.htm,  http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/matieres/mat_res-en/fertilisantes/faq.htm#q-2
7.     Toronto http://www.toronto.ca/water/biosolids/index.htm
  1. Town of Wolfville, Nova Scotia, resolution supporting “the principle that the biosolid waste product be reduced as much as possible by the removal of useful components (fertilizer elements, energy, etc.) and the harmful residue secured.” See page 21: http://www.wolfville.ca/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=1010&Itemid=175
9.     Vancouverhttp://www.metrovancouver.org/about/Pages/faqs.aspx
Research Programs
The Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) has established a Biosolids Task Group (BTG) which is developing a Canada-wide approach for the management of wastewater biosolids. http://www.ccme.ca/ourwork/waste.html?category_id=137
Work of the task group includes:
·         Developing an inventory of emerging contaminants in Canadian biosolids.
·         Reviewing current Canadian legislative frameworks for biosolids.
·         Developing a calculator tool (BEAM) for determining greenhouse gas emissions from various biosolids management practices.
 
N-Viro regularly embarks on additional non-prescribed testing. At present, we are voluntarily participating in a number of research programs on biosolids including:
·         Agriculture Canada – London Ontario Biosolids Contaminants Testing Program 
·         CCME Biosolids Contaminants Testing Program
·         Nova Scotia Agricultural College Biosolids Contaminants Testing Program
·         Vineland Research Station, University of Guelph